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Vibro Acoustic Research

Newest Research and Contra Indications are listed at the end.

Much of this research is cited in: The Practitioner's Guide to Vibro Acoustic Therapy. Suzanne Jonas, 2012.


1. Barlett, D. Physiological responses to music and sound stimuli. In D. Hodges (Ed.), Handbook of music psychology (2nd ed.) San Antonio: Institute for Music Research Press, 1996; 343-386.


2. Benson, H., & Klipper, M. Z. The Relaxation Response. New York: Avon Books, 1976.


3. Brewer, C. Boyd. The Somatron pain and anxiety management program. Tampa, FL: Somatron Corporation, 2000.


4. Brewer, C. Boyd, & Coope, V. Effectiveness of vibroacoustic music for pain and symptom management in outpatient chemotherapy treatment. In Proceedings of the First International Institute on the Arts in Healing, 5/ 16-17/03, Florida Atlantic U., Boca Raton, FL, 2000.


5. Brewer, C. Boyd. Vibroacoustic therapy: sound vibrations in medicine. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 2003: 9(5): 257-263.


6. Brodsky, W, Sloboda, J A. Clinical trial of a music generated vibrotactile therapeutic environment for musicians: main effects and outcome differences between therapy subgroups. Journal of Music Therapy¸1997:34(1):2-32.


7. Burke M, Walsh J, Oehler J, Gingras J: Music therapy following suctioning: Four case studies. Neonatal Network ,1995;14(7):41-49.


8. Burke, M. Effects of physioacoustic intervention on pain management of postoperative gynecological patients. In T. Wigram & C. Dileo (Eds.), Music vibration and health, Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books, 1997.


9. Burke, M., Phillips-Bute, B, & Vail, T. P. Positive effects of music therapy and vibration on satisfaction in TKA patients. Paper presented at the Department of Veteran Affairs Second Annual Leadership Conf., 2001: Pain Management and End of Life Care, Alexandria, VA.


10. Burke, M., & Thomas, K. Use of physioacoustic therapy to reduce pain during physical therapy for total knee replacement patients over age 55. In T. Wigram & C. Dileo (Eds.), Music vibration and health (pp. 99-106). Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books, 1997, 99-106.


11. Burke, M. A. Feasibility of physioacoustic therapy in cancer care. Unpublished report NIH Grant #1 R43 CA 75899 - 01 A1, 1996.


12. Butler, C., & Butler, P. Physioacoustic therapy with cardiac surgery patients. In T. Wigram & C. Dileo (Eds.), Music vibration and health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books, 1997; 197-204.


13. Cass, H., Slonims, V., Weekes, L., Wigram, T.& Wisbeach, A. Therapy services for Rett Syndrome: how well does provision match specific needs? Paper presented to the Royal Society of Medicine, London, 1993.


14. Chesky, K.S., & Michel, K.E. The music vibration table (MVT): developing a technology and conceptual model for pain relief. Music Therapy Perspectives, 1991;9 32-37.


15. Chesky, K.S. The effects of music and music vibration using the MVT ä on the relief of rheumatoid arthritis pain. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(8), 2725B. UMI No. AAC9300593), 1992.


16.Chesky, K.S., Michel, D.E., & Kondraske, G. Developing methods and techniques for scientific and medical application of music vibration. In R. Spintge & R. Dron (Eds.), Music medicine: Vol 2. St. Louis: MMB Music, 1996;227-241.


17.Chesky, K S, Russell I J, Lopes Y, Kondraske G. Fibromyalgia tender point pain: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of music vibration using the Music Vibration Table. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain. 1997;(5)2:22-52.


18.Clair, A A, Bernstein B. The preference for vibrotactile versus auditory stimuli in severely regressed persons with dementia of the Alzheimer's type compared to those with dementia due to alchol abuse. Music Therapy Perspectives, 1993;11:24-7.


19.Curtis, S.L. The effect of music on pain relief and relaxation of the terminally ill. Journal of Music Therapy, 1986;23(1), 10-24.


20.Darrow, A A. The effect of vibrotactile stimuli via the Somatron on the identification of rhythmic concepts by hearing impaired children. Journal of Music Therapy, 1992; 26(3):115-24.


21.Hodges, D. Handbook of music psychology. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing, 1980.


22.Hooper, J., Lindsay, B. The use of the Somatron in the treatment of anxiety problems with clients who have learning disabilities. (1997). In T. Wigram & C. Dileo (Eds.), Music vibration and health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books, 1997; 169-176.


23.Hooper, J. An introduction to vibroacoustic therapy and an examination of its place in music therapy practice. British Journal of Music Therapy, 2001;5:69-77.


24.Hubbard, S. J. A study of rapid mechanical events in a mechanoreceptor. Journal of Physiology, 1958;141, 198-218.


25.Jindrak, K., & Sing, H. Clean your brain and stay sound and sane. Forest Hills Station, New York: Karel F. Jindrak and Heda Jindrak, 1986.


26.Lehikoinen, P. The physioacoustic method. In T. Wigram & C. Dileo (Eds.), Music vibration and health. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books, 1997;206-216.


27.Llina, R., & Ribari, U. Coherent 40-Hz oscillation characterizes dreamlike states in humans. Neurobiology, 1985;90, 2078-2081.


28.Lundeberg, T. Vibratory stimulation for the alleviation of chronic pain. Acra Physiologie Scandinavia, 1983;523 (Suppl.),1-5.


29.Lundeberg, T. Long-term results of vibratory stimulation as a relieving measure for chronic pain. Pain, 1984a;20,13-23


30.Lundeberg, T. The pain suppressive effect of vibratory stimulation and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as compared to aspirin. Brain Research,1984b;294, 201-209.


31.Michel, D. E. & Chesky, K. Music and music vibration for pain relief: standards in research. In R. Spintge & R. Dron (Eds.), Music medicine (Vol. 2), St. Louis: MMB Music, 1996; 218-226.


32.Ottoson, S., Ekblom, A., & Hansson, P. Vibratory stimulation for the relief of pain of dental origin. Pain, 1981:10, 37-45.


33.Patrick, G. The effects of vibroacoustic music on symptom reduction: inducing the relaxation response through good vibrations. IEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology. March/April, 1999;97-100


34.Patrick, G., Burke, M. & Lipe, A. A systematic review of recent vibroacoustic therapy research. Unpublished manuscript in review, 2003.


35.Quillian, T. A., & Sato, M. The Distribution of myelin and nerve fibres from Pacinian corpuscles. Journal of Physiology, 1955;129, 167-176.


36.Skille, O. Manual of vibroacoustic therapy. Levanger, Norway: ISVA Publications, 1991.


37.Skille, O. The effect of music, vocalization and vibration on brain and muscle tissue: studies in vibroacoustic therapy. In T. Wigram, B. Saperston, & R. West (Eds.), The art and science of music therapy: a handbook. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Press, 1995.


38.Standley, J. M. The effect of vibrotactile and auditory stimuli on perception of comfort, heart rate and peripheral finger temperature. Journal of Music Therapy, 1991;28 (3), 120-34.


39.Vincente, P., Manchola, F., and Serna, E. The use of vibroacoustics in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In T. Wigram, B. Saperston, & R. West (Eds.), The art and science of music therapy: a handbook. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Press, 1997


40.Walters, C. The psychological and physiological effects of vibrotactile stimulation via a Somatron on patients awaiting scheduled gynecological surgery. Journal of Music Therapy, 1996;33(4), 261-287.


41.Wigram, T. The feeling of sound-the effect of music and low frequency sound in reducing anxiety in challenging behaviour in clients with learning difficulties. In H. Payne (Ed.), Handbook of enquiry in the arts therapies. London: Jessica Kingsley Publications, 1993;177-197.


42.Wigram, T. The effects of vibroacoustic therapy on clinical and non-clinical populations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, St. George's Medical School, London University, 1996:


43.Wigram, T. The effect of VA therapy on multiple handicapped adults with high muscle tone and spasticity. In T. Wigram & C. Dileo (Eds.), Music vibration and health, 143-148. Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books, 1997;143-148.


44. Wigram, T. Vibroacoustic therapy in the treament of Rett Syndrome. In T. Wigram & C. Dileo (Eds.), Music vibration and health). Cherry Hill, NJ: Jeffrey Books, 1997;149-155.


45.Wigram, T. & Cass, H. The role of music therapy in a clinic for children and adults with Rett Syndrome. Paper presented to the BSMT Conference, London, 1995.


Ellis, P. (1997) The Music of Sound: a new approach for children with severe and profound and multiple learning difficulties, in the British Journal of Music Education, 14:2, 173 - 186. Ellis, P. (1996) Layered Analysis: A Video-based qualitative research tool to support the development of a new approach for children with special needs, in the Bulletin for the Council for Research in Music Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, 130, 65-74.


Ongoing since 1995, the National Institutes of Health runs the most extensive program in the U.S. for vibroacoustic pain and symptom reduction, treating over 50,000 patients per year. In measuring the physiological and behavioral effectiveness of these interventions with 267 patients, Dr. Patrick George found over a 50% reduction of pain and symptoms. He theorizes that this pain relief is relaxation-induced.


Tests with chemotherapy patients at the Jupiter Medical Center in Florida found similar results: 62.8% reduction of anxiety and 61.6% reduction of fatigue for 27 patients in 41 vibroacoustics sessions.


A study at Duke University Medical Center also reported significant pain reduction for 20 women who had surgery for various cancers. Also at Duke, vibroacoustics was tested in physical therapy following total knee replacements, showing increased range of motion. Heart surgeons using vibroacoustics therapy during cardiac surgery recovery found significant decreases in patients' use of sedative and pain medication, time spent on the ventilator, time spent in the cardiac unit, and overall time spent in the hospital.

Vibroacoustic Treatment Protocol at Seinäjoki Central Hospital

Jouko Jouko Hynynen, Virpi Aralinna, Maire Räty, Esa Ala-Ruona


Vibroacoustic (VA) treatment is offered at the Department of Rehabilitation as part of specialized healthcare in the South Ostrobothnia healthcare district. This clinical report describes VA protocol used at Seinäjoki Central Hospital, where VA has been used since 1992, and the protocol is based on the extensive development project on VA from 1996-1999 [1]. According to our clinical experience, the results are encouraging when VA is used as an additional treatment for patients with chronic pain, musculoskeletal problems, specific neurological problems such as spasticity, and sleep disturbances. Also, comorbidity with depression and anxiety is an additional indication for VA to be used with the patients. Systematic collection of clinical data and continuous development of clinical practice have been essential in establishing and maintaining the high-quality services [2]. Still, no randomized controlled trials have been conducted

Vibroacoustic treatment for chronic pain and mood disorders in a specialized healthcare setting

Elsa Anne Campbell, Jouko Hynynen, Esa Ala-Ruona




Much of what we know about vibroacoustic treatment and its efficacy has been published in case reports. Recent clinical trials have increased awareness and understanding of this treatment for people with Parkinson’s disease or Fibromyalgia Syndrome. There are no standardized protocols for using vibroacoustic treatment although research has focused on using 40Hz. The rehabilitation unit of [blinded] Central Hospital in [blinded] has used vibroacoustic treatment for more than two decades as part of specialized healthcare in the [blinded] healthcare district. Patient responses have been recorded using Visual Analog Scales showing positive outcomes on several measures including pain and mood. This paper describes vibroacoustic treatment used within this unit, focusing on pain and mood outcomes reported in subjective patient evaluations and comments. 


Vibroacoustic Therapy in the treatment of developmental trauma: Developing safety through vibrations

Marko Punkanen, Marjo Nyberg, Tiinapriitta Savela




Developmental/attachment trauma strongly affects a child’s developing self-regulation skills, feelings of safety, and their abilities to use their social engagement system instead of defensive reactions like fight, flight, freeze, and total submission. Vibroacoustic therapy (VAT) uses pulsed, sinusoidal, low frequency sound on a specially designed mattress or chair. Based on clinical experience VAT seems to help regulate a traumatized child’s autonomic nervous system and gradually develop the bodily-related feeling of safety.


The Effects of Short-Term Vibroacoustic Treatment on Spasticity and Perceived Health Conditions of Patients with Spinal Cord and Brain Injuries       Eha Rüütel, Ivar Vinkel, Priit Eelmäe




Vibroacoustic (VA) treatment was applied to patients with chronic spinal cord and brain injuries during rehabilitation. The study aimed to ascertain the suitability of short-term VA treatment for supporting a decrease in spasticity and pain and an improvement in health condition in the rehabilitation programme for patients with spinal cord and brain injuries. Hypotheses: 1) indicators of self-perceived spasticity and pain measured after VA treatment are lower than measurement results before treatment; 2) VA treatment can be used in rehabilitation programmes to support the improvement of self-perceived health condition. 53 patients aged 20-72 participated in the study. VA treatment of 40 Hz was conducted once a day for 23 minutes over four or five days. Self-report numerical rating scales were used to measure patients’ condition before and after VA treatment sessions. Research findings revealed significant change in the levels of spasticity, pain, physical discomfort, general health condition, fatigue and anxiety after VA treatment sessions compared to the measurements before the sessions. Reduction in spasticity and physical discomfort was not statistically significantly different after four- or five-day treatment, a decrease in pain and an improvement in perceived health condition were significantly higher after five days than after four days treatment.

Are We Doing More Than We Know? Possible Mechanisms of Response to Music Therapy

Amy Clements-Cortes1,2* and  Lee Bartel1


Rüütel, Eha & Vinkel, Ivar & Laanetu, Moonika. (2018). Vibroacoustic Therapy and Development of a New Device: A Pilot Study in the Health Resort Environment. Universal Journal of Public Health. 6. 240-246. 10.13189/ujph.2018.060502. 


Vibroacoustic Therapy for Parkinson’s, Fibromyalgia, Alzheimer’s and Depression. Novotney, Amy. APA, Monitor on Psychology November 13, 2013 Vol 44, No. 10


At this time, VTS and VAT are contra indicated with the following populations:
Pregnant Women
Rheumatoid Arthritis [acute phase]

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